Slot scanning Improving safety of x-ray exams using slot-scanning x-ray systems

Slot scanning, a p-value of...

We compared the mean scores of the features and overall scores for the six levels and for the two methods. Exposure factors were recorded for tube voltage kVintensity mAsfocal distance between tube and patient, and size of the radiation field at the surface of the child.

About the Author

Three radiologists each independently assessed the diagnostic quality of the images, using statistical analysis of quality score and inter-observer reproducibility.

Table 1 Open in a separate window Note. The researchers used a list of 20 anatomical criteria from the European Guidelines on Quality for Diagnostic Radiographic Images appropriate for scoliosis imaging to rate diagnostic image quality. No spongy portions were present in the phantom and bone marrow was simulated with tissue-equivalent material, thereby allowing for a critical detailed study of bone structure and sharpness comparison using X-rays.

This was followed by a prospective observational dosimetric and qualitative comparative study of whole-spine x-ray images acquired by SSS for 31 children and DFD images of 26 children. The unit consisted of radiopaque isocyanate rubber that had approximately the same absorption and secondary radiation-emitting characteristics as living tissue. The images of lower extremities performed on SAPL of CR are more magnified than a radiopaque ruler, since the distance between the ruler and cassette is shorter than the distance between the patient and the cassette The lower extremities were positioned with both patellae pointing toward the ceiling and a radiopaque ruler taped on the table between both legs.

It required a custom built machine.

Slot-scanning systems SSS can reduce the radiation dose exposure more than dynamic flat panel detector DFD systems, according to a study from France published online August 14, in Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. This image gets progressively bigger and eventually shifts itself out of the frame. A Space Odyssey in for the "star gate" sequence. Some of the studies evaluated the long bone in animal models 3whereas other studies evaluated the spine, hands and feet in human models 6 - 8.

The Next Generation — to create the "stretching" of the starship Enterprise-D when it engaged warp drive. Slit-scan photography was also used on Interstellar for scenes in the tesseract at the end of the movie.

Last, we measured the entrance skin dose for the SSDR method at the same sites. Abstract Objective Slot scanning compare the slot-scan digital radiography SSDR of the lower extremity region and the computed radiography CR method with respect to the image quality and radiation exposure.

Snoqualmie casino minimum age

Recently, the slot-scan digital radiography SSDR method has been introduced for chest and breast imaging as a new scanning technology of digital radiography. We evaluated the visibility of four features, including the outer margin of the cortex of the bone, the inner margin of the cortex, the trabeculae of the medullary bone visibility of an individual trabeculaeand the intermuscular fat plane.

A p-value of less than 0. Description[ edit ] Slit-scan is an animation created image by image. However, the mean scores of outer margin of the cortex at the levels of the pelvis, femur, knee and tibia, as well as those of inner margin of cortex at hip, tibia and ankle, were not significantly different between the two methods. For each whole-spine frontal radiograph that was taken of a scoliosis patient, acquisition was done with a postero-anterior beam.

The acquired image included the base of the skull to the tip of the coccyx and extended from one iliac rest to the next. Dosimetric statistical analysis was performed from dose area product DAP and entrance skin dose measured by thermo-luminescent dosimeters localized in the cervical thoracic, and sacral areas.

Due to the expense and difficulty of this technique, the same three warp-entry shots, all created by Industrial Light and Magic for the series pilot, were reused throughout the series virtually every time the ship went into warp.

Navigation menu

Comparative dose levels and image quality between a dynamic flat-panel detector and a slot-scanning device EOS system. A visibility grading scale was used for assessing the image quality of each feature 0: Some important advantages of the SSDR method include the limited number of detector elements, high spatial resolution, and the lack of a scatter grid 2.

The maximum and minimum scores were eight and zero, respectively. The SSDR method was performed to evaluate the alignment of the knee joints as well as measure the lengths of lower extremities. Computed radiography, Slot-scan digital radiography, Lower extremities, Phantom Following the introduction of low-dose digital radiography at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in the beginning of the s, the demand for and the use of digital image acquisition, display, and archiving systems has greatly increased in the field of radiology.

The distance between the patient and the tube was cm.

Casino aventura

The image quality was evaluated using a visibility scale, and the entrance skin dose was measured using a dosimeter at three different levels of a phantom hip, knee, and ankle. Improving safety of x-ray exams using slot-scanning x-ray systems.

Slots double bubble

In turn, this evaluation was performed at six different levels of the lower extremity region, including the pelvis, hip, femur, knee, tibia and ankle 4. Published online August 14, These steps are repeated for each image, lightly peeling back the masking, which at the same time produces variation in colors as well as variation of the position of the light stream, thus creating the animation.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility using the SSDR method for the lower extremity region by comparing the CR method with respect to the image quality and radiation exposure. Image Evaluation Two musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated all of the lower extremities images by consensus, using a PACS Centricity 2. Each child wore three pairs of Lithium Fluoride TLD, placed on the back in the most radiosensitive organs cervical, interscapular, and sacral to estimate the locally delivered irradiation.

ATM skimming: How to spot an ATM skimmer - TomoNews

Although the SSDR method has been primarily used to for chest imaging, it has also recently been used for the skeletal system of both humans and animals.